Celebrating Black History Month 2019

Black History Month logo from https://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/

Today is the first day of Black History Month.  This year we are celebrating Black and African diaspora histories in a number of ways. 

Our research seminar programmes for October include speakers presenting topics that intersect with Black histories:

On Thursday 10th October, Dr Claire Eldridge from the University of Leeds will speak to the Modern History seminar about ‘Conflict and Community in the Trenches: Military Justice, Colonial Soldiers and the French Army during the First World War’ at 5.15pm in room 1.10, St Katharine’s Lodge.

On Monday 14th October, Dr Stephanie Wynne-Jones from the University of York will speak to the Medieval Studies seminar about ‘The Swahili world in the medieval globe: writing history with things’ at 1.15pm in the Old Class Library, St John’s House.

Later that day (Monday 14th October), at 4pm Dr Kate Law from the University of Nottingham will speak to the Modern History seminar about ‘”A delicate subject”: Family Planning and Apartheid, South Africa c. 1974-1994’ in room 1.10, St Katharine’s Lodge.

Other research seminars relevant to Black histories will also be held further into the academic year – for a full programme see here.

Finally, those of you who are not newcomers to the School may remember that last year we marked Black History Month by compiling a reading list of ‘essential texts’ on African and African Diaspora (including Black British, African American, and Afro European) histories. Many staff members pledged portions of their library allowance to buy any books on the list that were not held by the library.  When we compiled this reading list last year we acknowledged that by its nature it would always be a ‘work in progress’, which would require revising and updating as time went on.  This year, again, we would like to invite all students and staff to look through the reading list and let us know if there’s anything that’s not on there, that you think we should add.  Maybe you are new to St Andrews and are seeing the list with fresh eyes.  Maybe you’ve been here a while but have encountered a book in the past year – newly published or a classic in a field that’s new to you – that you think is now ‘essential reading’.  Please email any suggestions to Dr Kate Ferris (kf50) by the end of the month.  We’ll add these to the reading list, and if any are not already in the library’s collections we’ll do our best to purchase these.  In this way you’ll be making a tangible and lasting difference to the university’s holdings in the fields of Black and African diaspora histories that will help inform our research and teaching for years to come!

PhD Induction Day 2019

Blog written by Emily Betz. Emily is a third-year PhD student in Modern History studying the medical history in early modern England.

On Wednesday, September 18th the new cohort of history PhD students gathered at the beautiful Rufflets Hotel on the outskirts of St Andrews. The day began with the students getting to know each other over a cup of tea and a speed ice-breaker question series. After becoming better acquainted with each other’s academic and non-academic interests, we settled in to listen to Dr Emma Hart, the Director of Research Postgraduates and Elsie Johnstone, the School’s Postgraduate Administrator, speak about what the School of History offers its students. Their presentation gave a deeper insight into the School’s administrative processes and how it can support history students on the journey to a successful PhD.

The beautiful garden of the Rufflets Hotel.
Photo credit: Emily Betz

After a short coffee break, Dr Kate Ferris, chair of the School of History Equality & Diversity Committee, and Lenna Cumberbatch, University Equality & Diversity Adviser, spoke on the importance of knowing the University’s equality and diversity processes. Their interactive presentations imparted the necessity of respect in our academic environment and brought awareness to our biases, especially the unconscious ones that we all carry.  This was followed by a lovely walk in the Rufflets’ gardens while lunch was being prepared.

After a lunch of soup and sandwiches (with fantastic cake for dessert!), Dr Hart asked the group to think more about how to write a thesis and what stages we as researchers should go through during the PhD process. After discussing our methods as a group, we found that there are many individual ways of constructing a thesis—the important thing is to find a method that works best for you. While it’s easy to compare one PhD path to another and feel imposter syndrome, but Dr Hart warned against this in what would become the quote of the day: ‘Perfection is a unicorn’! The main takeaway was that there is no one correct way to be successful at your PhD.

The 2019 History PhD Induction group.
Photo credit: Emily Betz

Following in the same vein, the current PhD students talked about their own experiences and challenges with the PhD process. They echoed that perfection certainly is an unattainable goal and gave advice on how best to manage expectations and stay positive in what can be a grueling writing process. Their best pieces of advice included getting to know your PhD cohort, writing soon and often, and taking advantage of the various extra skills courses the university offers. After the current students spoke, it was time to get back in the taxis and make the short trip home to St Andrews–this time with more knowledge of the School of History and even more excitement for the 2019/20 academic year to begin!

Crisis or Enlightenment? 2019 USTC History of the Book Conference

Blog written by Elise Watson. Elise is a first year PhD student in the Reformation Studies Institute and part of the Universal Short Title Catalogue project. Her research focuses on the trade of Catholic books in the Dutch Golden Age, and she will be co-organising next year’s annual book conference on Gender and the Book Trades with Professor Helen Smith. 

On 20-22 June, scholars from as near as Church Street and as far as Colombia gathered for the annual conference hosted by the Universal Short Title Catalogue project, this year entitled ‘Crisis or Enlightenment?’. The conference, organised by St Andrews School of History postdoctoral researcher Dr. Arthur der Weduwen and Université Rennes 2 postdoctoral research fellow Dr. Ann-Marie Hansen, was also generously sponsored by the School of History of the University of St Andrews and the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading & Publishing (SHARP). The conference consisted of eight panels, two keynotes and 24 presenters spread over three days. The chronological range of the conference’s presentations, which extended beyond the current scope of the USTC, both broadened the horizons of the project and explored some of the fundamental questions of early modern book history.

Conference co-organiser Dr. Anne-Marie Hansen address the attendees.
Photo credit: Nora Epstein

The first panel of the conference discussed networks and book distribution from Vienna to Edinburgh. From there, the conversation shifted to book collecting, in examples of parish libraries and Italian monastery libraries. After lunch, a panel on profits and markets discussed the marketing and sale of particular genres of books, including medical books in the Dutch Republic and school books in Catalonia, as well as examples of how (not) to run a print shop in the Enlightenment. The first day concluded with a plenary address by Professor Ian Maclean on the impact of academic journals on the German book fairs in the Enlightenment. After the work of the first day was done, presenters and attendees were treated to an exhibition from University Special Collections, a carefully curated and fascinating collection of early print.

Attendees peruse the Special Collections exhibition in College Hall, St Mary’s College
Photo credit: Nora Epstein

On the second day, the first panel discussed auction catalogues and collecting practices in Lübeck, French private libraries and Jewish collections in the Dutch Republic. The second panel, which dealt with newspapers and periodicals, discussed French language gazettes and discussions of comets in eighteenth-century ephemera. After lunch, three papers on science and censorship in Italy and the Spanish colonies shifted our understandings of the relationship between control and innovation in Enlightenment publishing. The second plenary of the conference, delivered by Professor Dominique Varry of the École nationale supérieure des sciences de l’information et des bibliothèques, delighted the crowd with a fascinating discussion and entertaining examples of false imprints in eighteenth-century French books, including a book claiming its origin in Hell, at the print shop of Beelzebub himself!

Image courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

The second day concluded with the launch of the conference volume Buying and Selling: The Business of Books in Early Modern Europe, edited by USTC alumna Dr. Shanti Graheli and published in Brill’s Library of the Written Word series. This was celebrated with a wine reception sponsored by SHARP.

The final day contained two further sessions. The first, on production, crisis and change, included a fascinating discussion of the impact of the Disaster Year of 1672 on print production in the Dutch Republic. The eighth and final panel included three papers on Enlightenment libraries, asking practical and interpretive questions of what we mean when we say ‘Enlightenment library’ and interrogating systems of organisation, annotation and use. Along with the presentations, I think all participants would agree that a great amount of collaboration and in-depth scholarly synthesis occurred during both the question and answer sessions, and later at the pub after the ideas presented had some time to digest. We are grateful for the help provided by everyone from St Andrews, especially the USTC summer interns, as well as all participants for their excellent and thought-provoking contributions! The conference proceedings will be edited by the co-organisers, Dr. Arthur der Weduwen and Dr. Ann-Marie Hansen, and published in Brill’s Library of the Written Word series.

For more reporting on the conference see the recent blog on the Preserving the World’s Rarest Books site, or follow the coverage on the Twitter hashtag #USTC19. Next year’s conference, entitled ‘Gender and the Book Trades’, is being organised by Professor Helen Smith (York) and myself (Elise Watson), and it will be held from 2-4 July 2020. For more information, please see https://www.ustc.ac.uk/conference!

Postgraduate Skills Seminar: Dr Gareth Williams, British Museum

Blog written by PhD student Christin Simons. Christin is a 3rd year PhD student at the Institute for Scottish History studying the perception of the Scandinavian East India Companies.

School of History, St John’s House
Photo credit: Emily Betz

On Thursday 11 April, Dr Gareth Williams from the British Museum visited St Andrews to discuss alternative career paths for PhD students considering a non-academic career. He spoke specifically on pathways to becoming a museum curator. This event was hosted under the sponsorship of the University’s Centre for Academic, Professional and Organisational Development (CAPOD) under the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (QAA) thematic initiative ‘Transitions’.

Dr Williams, who has been a curator with the British Museum since 1996, managed to both promote the career possibilities for becoming a museum curator while being candid about the challenges of the job at the same time. He painted a realistic picture of the work in a museum, which comes with limited career development and lack of funding opportunities, but his enthusiasm for working in the field still made it an attractive opportunity to pursue after finishing one’s PhD. For the attendees without a degree in Museum Studies, it was especially encouraging to hear that it is possible to enter the museum world by way of internships, volunteering or trainee curatorship. As well as responsibilities like the management of collections, public engagement and exhibition display, Dr Williams gave further insight into the ‘less obvious things’ that come with being a museum curator, like the teaching, training and mentoring of doctoral students.

The attendees commented on the practical value of the session. Matthew Ylitalo, PhD candidate in Modern History, stated that he appreciated the field previously but admittedly had not seriously considered entering it, having thought that not having a postgrad degree in museum studies excluded him.  He noted ‘Gareth quickly put all of that to rest when he introduced the state of the field and its possibilities.  To my surprise, there are a number of non-traditional pathways into curatorial work. Even if I do not pursue full-time employment with a museum, Gareth convinced me that volunteering with a museum or project could be a fulfilling and much appreciated prospect’. Another attendee, Chelsea Reutke, PhD candidate in Early Modern History, liked the speaker’s enthusiasm and helpfulness in answering questions. ‘He conveyed both the exciting opportunities as well as the pragmatic realities of working in museums. After attending his talk, I feel that I have a solid understanding of the requirements of different types of museums. Museums remain one of my career paths after my PhD, and I now feel that I know what it will take and what to look for’. Echoing that sentiment, Clémentine Anne, PhD candidate in Modern History, declared, ‘I think I am now more aware of the reality of the job and can reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of a career in museums.’

The overall consensus was that this was an extremely informed and useful session, and we thank Dr Williams for sharing his experience with us.

2019 SAIMS Graduate Conference

By Dana Weaver

The weekend of the 6th-8th June the Saint Andrews Institute of Mediaeval Studies (SAIMS) held its annual postgraduate conference, welcoming colleagues from around Europe and the United Kingdom. Jointly sponsored by SAIMS, the School of History, the Centre for Anatolian and East Mediterranean Studies, the Institute of Legal and Constitutional Research and CAPOD, the aim of the conference was not only to give postgraduate researchers an opportunity to present their ongoing work, but also to bring together medievalists from a variety of fields with the goal of facilitating interdisciplinary dialogue. The success of this can be seen in the diversity of topics presented and in the wide range of speakers which included students, early career scholars and established academics.  

We began Thursday morning with a paper by Renan Baker (Cambridge) on ‘Latin Imperial Biographies and Miscellanies’ that provoked a welcome debate on the nature of genre. This was followed by a session on Anglo-Saxon saints with papers from Alice Neale (SAS, London) and John Hudson (St Andrews) entitled ‘Turning Æthelthryth’s pages: the development of the cult of an Anglo-Saxon saint during the tenth-century reform movement’ and ‘The cult that didn’t happen: the case of (St) Lanfranc of Canterbury’, respectively. This session generated a fruitful discussion on the factors contributing to the success or failure of the development of saints’ cults. After a short break we heard from Serena Ammirati (Roma Tre) on ‘Authoritative writing, writing as authority: the contribution of paleography to the history of the transmission of Roman legal thought,’ sponsored by the ILCR, and Justyna Kamińska (Jagiellonian) on ‘The role of the founders in the building process of the Dominican church and cloister of St James in Sandomierz’. Both of these papers encouraged us to find meaning through visual forms and processes.

Our own Professor John Hudson (left) and Professor Carole Hillenbrand (right) presenting at this year’s conference. Photo credit: Cameron Houston

After a productive day of papers and discussion, the evening commenced with a garden party at St John’s House where a friendly game of cricket was followed by pizza and a drinks reception. Scholarly debate continued, but was punctuated by the process of getting to know the people behind the research. Those from St Andrews were especially pleased with the blue skies and sunlight late into the evening.

On Friday we started the day with a paper by Franziska Geibinger (Vienna) entitled ‘The functional types of the representation of the elevation of the hairy Mary Magdalene in her development to the determining “cult image”’, which explored a unique representation of a familiar saint. A paper was also given by Roman Tymoshevskyi (CEU) on ‘The discourse of kingship in John Gower’s and Thomas Hoccleve’s Mirrors of Princes’, provoking rumination on the role of power and the moral expectations of kingship.

The keynote speaker was Carole Hillenbrand (Edinburgh and St Andrews), who led us through her ‘Reflections on the caliphate’. This was a riveting survey of the caliphate from its beginning to the end of the Ottoman empire from which sprung a fascinating discussion about the conceptualization of the caliphate in modern-day politics and the centralization of power in the middle east.

After lunch and with prevailing good weather Alex Woolf (St Andrews) led a medieval walking tour of St Andrews. It was enjoyed by all of its participants, especially those of us from St Andrews who were seeing the town through a new lens. Back at St John’s House we began the second half of our day with a paper by Nic Morton (Nottingham) on ‘Confronting and culturally absorbing Mongols and Seljuk Turks’, followed by David Zakarian (Oxford) who spoke on ‘Women and the laws of men in medieval Armenia’, sponsored by CAEMS. Both of these papers took us beyond the borders of western Europe and into the near east where the discussion centered around questions of cultural transmissions and connections.

Dr Alex Woolf led a medieval walking tour of St Andrews
Photo credit: Cameron Houston

Our last panel of the day included topics of philosophy with papers by Mahdi Ranaee (Potsdam) on ‘Al-Ghazâlî on sophistry and doubt’ and Ana Martins on ‘Political yhought in Collectanea Moralis Philosophiae (1571).’ Each of these papers encouraged thought on textual organization and engagement: how do we conceive of the interaction between texts, authors, and time?

Friday evening was spent at Forgan’s enjoying a lively conference dinner followed by a ceilidh—a great way to introduce our guests from beyond St Andrews to some local traditions. The following morning dawned the last day of the conference and began with a paper entitled ‘Imagining the cross, imagining Christ: insular sculpture in the Viking Age’ by Heidi Stoner (Durham), which captured the importance of moving beyond attributions of ethnicity in early insular sculpture. The keynote speaker on Saturday was Charles West (Sheffield) who gave a stimulating paper on ‘Hincmar of Reims and the politics of the ordeal.’ This paper examined the part of the ecclesiast in the politics of trial by ordeal and encouraged a discussion on the role of intercession, both sacred and secular, in the outcome.

After a short break we heard papers given by Blythe Malona (Glasgow) entitled the ‘Percy empire: building a northern lordship’, John Aspinwall (Lancaster) entitled ‘Patronage and politics: literary production as a strategy of power in Rogerian Sicily’ and Oliver Mitchell (Courtauld) entitled ‘Power and Fortune’s Wheel’. These three topics all explored some aspect of the pursuit of power and the ways in which it is recognized and displayed. The day concluded with lunch and goodbyes: the culmination of a rewarding conference spent exploring the medieval world through new and innovative perspectives.   

A special thanks is due to our conference organizers Ingrid Ivarsen, Maria Merino and JJ Gallagher, as well as the St Andrews University catering staff. Many thanks to each of you for your patience and good humor.  

ISHR Reading Weekend 2019

Blog post written by Sarah Leith

The Burn
Photo Credit: The Burn Scotland

The second weekend in April is always hotly anticipated by members of the University of St Andrews’ Institute of Scottish Historical Research (ISHR). Every year, a group of staff, students and guests descends upon The Burn, which is a country house situated on the outskirts of Edzell, a Georgian planned town straddling the border between Angus and Aberdeenshire. What they have been eagerly awaiting all year is ISHR’s annual reading weekend, the main event in the calendars of every University of St Andrews Scottish historian and historian-in-training. Always full of fascinating papers covering all aspects of Scottish historical studies, this year’s reading weekend was no exception. The ISHR reading weekend provides the perfect opportunity for PhD students to present their research in front of their peers and lecturers in a comfortable and informal setting. It also allows these students to listen to and to engage with the research currently being conducted by members of staff within the School of History. So, what happened this year?

On Friday evening, the attendees having devoured The Burn’s supply of scones alongside very welcome cups of tea and coffee, the proceedings of ISHR’s reading weekend enjoyed a propitious start in the form of Dr Derek Patrick’s introductory lecture. In his paper entitled ‘‘Probably at no time in its history has the popularity of the regiment been so emphatically demonstrated’: The Black Watch and Kitchener’s New Army, 1914-15’, Dr Patrick provided his audience with an extremely interesting account of the Black Watch’s volunteers at the beginning of the First World War. The talk was followed by lively discussion and questions abounded. For the rest of the night, The Burn’s guests settled in front of the roaring coal fire to catch up with each other, as well as to listen to Masters research student Jack Abernethy’s beautiful renditions of traditional fiddle music. Many thanks to Jack for bringing along his fiddle!

Dr Derek Patrick giving the 2019 reading weekend introductory lecture
Photo credit Sarah Leith

The next morning guests were up bright and early for the first panel, ‘Trade and Economics’. Our first speaker was Matt Ylitalo with a paper entitled ‘A walrus, a polar bear, and a humpback whale: Dundee’s nineteenth-century trade in Arctic animals’. Who knew that a polar bear was once loose in the centre of Dundee?! We then welcomed Dr Andrew McDiarmid from the University of Dundee who spoke on ‘Exiled Economics: a model for understanding the Scottish Financial Revolution’. Following a short break for refreshments, the next panel, ‘The Scottish Soldier at Home and Abraod’ began swiftly; two of Professor Steve Murdoch’s first year PhD students, Xiaoping Qi and Callum Woolsey, presented papers respectively upon the subjects of ‘Scottish Regiments in France, 1633-1659’ and ‘The Tartan Army: Home and Away in the 1640s’. For our third panel, we welcomed two guests from the University of Kent. In January we welcomed Dr Amy Blakeway as the newest member of ISHR, and so we invited her two PhD students, Graeme Millen and Anna Turnham, to join us for the Reading Weekend. Graeme and Anna both kindly presented papers on Saturday, too, with Graeme telling us about ‘A real distaste of the country and the service’: Major-General Hugh Mackay’s Memoirs, the Scots-Dutch Brigade and Identity during the Highland War, 1689-1692’ and Anna presenting a paper entitled ‘Between Berwick and Scotland: the correspondence of Ralph Sadler and James Croft with the Lords of the Congregation, 1559’.

After lunch, the group embarked on an outing to the Grassic Gibbon Centre, located near Arbuthnott. The Grassic Gibbon Centre celebrates the life of the twentieth-century Scottish writer James Leslie Mitchell, better known by his penname Lewis Grassic Gibbon. His most famous work, Sunset Song, the first part of his trilogy A Scots Quair, is widely regarded as the finest Scottish novel ever written. Having enjoyed this excursion, the group then returned to The Burn ready to listen to the next panel. Before dinner, we enjoyed the contributions of Daniel Leaver and Carol McKinven, who presented papers entitled ‘Revisiting ‘The New Commanding Height’: The North Sea and the Wilson Governments, 1964-70’ and ‘The master of the house?: Obligations and reciprocity in Scottish working-class marriage’. The day ended with a Quiz Night, which was won by Team Sofa So Good.

The last day began with a panel about Scotland’s twentieth century. James Inglis presented his paper ”Don’t write in the dark’: The commercialisation of the visible typewriter in Scotland’, complete with typewriter prop! This was followed by a paper given by Paul Malgrati entitled ”See yonder poor’: Robert Burns and the Welfare State (1940-1950)’. For the last panel of the weekend, we were given insight into the new ‘After the Enlightenment Project’ being conducted at the University of St Andrews. Dr Bill Jenkins and Dr Felicity Loughlin gave two papers about ‘The identities of David Brewster: The self-fashioning of a Scottish man of science, 1802–1838’ and ‘Scotland’s Infidels: Freethinkers’ Societies, c.1820-c.1850′. This was a great ending to a brilliant reading weekend. Many thanks to everyone who contributed papers, and to those who came along to listen and to enjoy the weekend. See you at The Burn again next year!

Thinking about Recluses: A recap of the second ‘Rethinking voluntary reclusion in Mediterranean Europe’ workshop

On 28th and 29th March 2019 an international band of intrepid medievalists, including four from St Andrews, gathered in Rome and Viterbo for the second of two interdisciplinary workshops dedicated to ‘Rethinking Voluntary Reclusion in Mediterranean Europe’. It was a truly international event, organized by the St Andrews Institute of Mediaeval Studies, the Scuola Superiore di Studi Medievali e Francescani, and the Centro Studi Santa Rosa da Viterbo Onlus.

Figure 1: A possible recluse cell?

Medievalists have long investigated the reasons for choosing to live walled-up in a cell and what it might signify in religious and social terms. Primary texts and material culture can help us to explore such questions in a more meaningful way. For example, most historians of the medieval English church have encountered guides for recluses, such as the widely disseminated early 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, or biographies of well-known recluses and their spirituality. For those wanting to pursue the question of what it might have been like to live as a recluse, there remain a few extant cells attached to English churches. There have also been useful and important studies of France, Germany, and Italy. However, these historiographies remain distinct from one another and have tended to focus either on hagiographical material or on specific cities.  Therefore, one aim of the workshop at the Università Pontificia Antonianum was to update our understanding of what it meant to be a recluse, particularly in Italy, and to do so by comparing the evidence and the historiographies of different areas. This constitutes a continuation of a conversation begun in St Andrews in 2018, when cases from Italy were discussed alongside Croatia and Portugal. This year comparisons were made between Catalonia, England, and Germanic speaking regions of the empire.

The workshop, funded by the European Community through a Marie Curie Action and the Centro Studi Santa Rosa da Viterbo Onlus (thanks to a donation from EFI-Edizioni Francescane Italiane), began with the welcome of Pietro Messa of the Pontificia Università Antonianum. This was followed by the opening keynote delivered by Eddie Jones of the University of Exeter. Asking how much ordinary people knew about English recluses, Jones argued that they were a familiar part of the fabric of many a town (or its liminal spaces) and therefore often went unremarked. This does not make them easy to track down, though careful investigation reveals good evidence for their daily lives and those who supported them. The question of support was also central to the paper given by Joshua Easterling of Murray State University, though with a more spiritual understanding. Easterling focused on the lives of seven saintly recluses to argue for a transition from the early importance of Cistercian salvation networks in sustaining and inspiring recluses, to later more urban Mendicant connections. Michelle M. Sauer of the University of North Dakota then explored the role of widows who, in their role as recluses also became mediators, mediatrices, in the wider community. Other papers unpicked the language of the Catalan sources (Araceli Rosillo, Biblioteca Franciscans de Catalunya), the responses of Central Italian bishops and synodal regulation (Simone Allegria, Università di Siena-Arezzo), the range of evidence for recluses in Rome (Anna Esposito, Sapienza Università di Roma), and the location of recluses in the Patriarchate of Aquileia (Marialuisa Bottazzi, Centro Europeo di Studi Medievali).

The round table, during which Frances Andrews, Attilio Bartoli Langeli, Eddie Jones and Eleonora Rava mulled over some of the findings of the day, underscored the importance of rethinking the whole question of what being a medieval recluse might be taken to mean.  One reason why recluses have often been ignored by historians of medieval religion, or underestimated as merely a ‘transitional’ phase in a pious itinerary towards monastic enclosure, is the difficulty of the source material, which is often fragmentary and lacking precision.  As several speakers at the workshop made clear, new research and new evidence is now allowing us to set aside longstanding commonplaces. By focusing on the documentary evidence of communal Italy it is being revealed that recluses were a specific and autonomous element in the religious world.

Figure 2: A couple of St Andreans snapping a photo of the Bible of St Bonaventure

On day two, we set off on a fascinating walking tour, led by Eleonora Rava, tracking down locations associated with the city of Viterbo’s medieval recluses. The tour began with the archives of the monastery of Sta Rosa (who was arguably a recluse), passed through the crypts and cloisters of several urban churches and ended in the diocesan archive now housed in the papal palace. Here an unexpected opportunity arose to inspect the Bible of St Bonaventure, once stored as a relic in Bagnoregio. With this last surprise the workshop came to a close, but all the participants came away with a keen interest in developing further connections. The first step in that process will be an edited volume to be tentatively published in 2020.