The History Society Undergraduate Conference 2019

Blog written by Ruth McKechnie

This year, the History Society’s Annual Undergraduate Conference returned for its fifth year. Once again, talented and inquisitive undergraduate historians showcased their research and presented their own unique take on the theme of ‘History and the People’. This year’s participants considered a wide range of topics and interpretations, from Soviet warfare to the commemoration of anniversaries today. Speakers Jacob Baxter, Fiona Banham and Benjamin Claremont are all currently in their fourth year, while Grant Wong is only in the second year of his studies. These students were joined by Professor Ali Ansari of the Middle Eastern History department and Dr Sarah Frank of Modern History.

Professor Ansari presented a thought-provoking exploration of how history relates to the formation of public policy, and he outlined some of the challenges he himself has faced within the public sphere. Dr Frank gave a paper on the experiences and popular images of prisoners of war, with particular emphasis on colonial German captives during the Second World War. However, the true highlight of the day were the undergraduate speakers. Each student gave an insight into an area of history that resonated with them.

Jacob Baxter, presenting ‘The Anniversary Today; Possibilities, Pitfalls and the People’, provided a striking consideration of the impacts that anniversaries can have upon historical engagement with the public. He skilfully brought St Andrews and the commemoration of the University’s 400th year to the forefront of this paper. Following this, Grant Wong gave a truly educational foray into the lives of re-enactors, and the length to which they will go to prefect their craft in his paper ‘A Search for Purpose: The Power of Performance in Civil War Re-enactment.’ Special attention was devoted to the role of women and minority groups within this practice.  ‘Children of the Holocaust in Popular and Collective Memory’, delivered by Fiona Banham, was a poignant and thoroughly considered insight into how the images and insights of children impact the public perception of the Holocaust. This paper received much praise and prompted more than a few tears from the audience. Benjamin Claremont’s presentation of ‘Losing the Forest for the Trees: Military Myopia in the Western Popular Understanding of Soviet Warfare’  focused on the impact of misinformation surrounding historical phenomena. Using exceptional example, he explored how myths can seep into common consciousness through platforms such as YouTube and popular media.

After the papers were delivered, the Deans Prize was won by  Jacob Baxter and his thoroughly delightful presentation. The conference was closed by a roundtable discussion, in which presenters, committee members and members of the audience participated in a lively debate. This final event marked the end of a day jam-packed with truly excellent work and thought-provoking ideas, which will hopefully facilitate further discussion. The History Society wishes to say a big thank you to all who made such a great day possible, with a special thanks to keynote speakers, student presenters and the School of History. Each of the papers presented will soon be available in History Society Undergraduate Conference Journal, and I would thoroughly recommend reading these spectacular examples of student research.

LGBT History Month Poster: Charity Bryant and Sylvia Drake

This double silhouette portrait is of Charity Bryant and Sylvia Drake, two women who lived together in the small village of Weybridge, Vermont, USA, in the first half of the nineteenth century.  It is typical as a piece of sentimental, amateur art that, with its heart-twisted hairs, commemorates the devotion of a couple to one another.  The fact that both silhouettes portray women was less unusual than we might think.


Charity Bryant and Sylvia Drake, Wikimedia Commons

Rachel Hope Cleves, Charity and Sylvia’s biographer, explains how, living in a small village, surrounded by relatives and family-friends, the two women could live as a couple because it was an “open secret” that they were in a relationship.  Villagers were willing to abide by this “open secret” because the women were pillars of the church, economy, and society.  Training young people in tailoring and sewing, running Sunday schools, caring for their dozens of nieces and nephews, the women were celebrated for their devotion to each other.  A nephew, Cullen, who benefited from their tutoring wrote of “how, in their youthful days, they took each other as companions for life, and how this union, no less sacred to them than the tie of marriage, has subsisted, in uninterrupted harmony, for forty years, during which they have shared each other’s occupations and pleasures and works of charity while in health, and watched over each other tenderly in sickness”.

Source: Rachel Hope Cleves, Charity and Sylvia: A Same Sex Marriage in Early America (Oxford University Press, 2014)

Further reading: 

John D’Emilio & Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988)

Lillian Faderman, Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women From the Renaissance to the Present (London: Junction Books, 1981)

Thomas Foster, Sex and the Eighteenth-Century Man: Massachusetts and the History of Sexuality in America (Boston: Beacon, 2006)

Richard Godbeer, Sexual Revolution in Early America (Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001)

“Death in the Pot”: The Long History of Food Adulteration

Blog written by Dr Claudia Kreklau

“Death in the Pot”—an appetizing title! In 1820, German-born chemist Friedrich Accum, known as Frederick Accum to his colleagues in London, published a monograph written to make your stomach turn. In early nineteenth-century Britain, an increasingly urban population relied on food vendors and a growing industrial complex to provide their daily bread. Accum revealed to them that their flour contained alum, their Gloucester cheese lead, and tea (good old British institution tea!) contained cherry leaves, acting as a rather unwanted, very strong laxative.

Inflammatory as Accum’s work undoubtedly was, “food adulteration” as Accum called it, was a problem, and in good German fashion, Accum criticized the condition in Britain relentlessly. His British colleagues and industrialists were of course delighted to be told off by the young German chemist-upstart. “If Mr. Accum were as accurate and perspicuous as he is industrious, his services to the science of chemistry would be less equivocal,” one critic wrote. He also found it particularly egregious that Accum “tried to give [his work] such ‘a popular form’ as to place” testing food contents “within the reach even of those who are unacquainted with the principles of chemical science.” Accum’s works gave the public a set of simple tests to make sure their own foods did not contain poisons. After all, lead, arsenic, copper, and chrome were popular colorings – the E-numbers of the nineteenth century, if you like. The use of such substances caused more than one child to end up unconscious after eating “poisonous custard” artificially flavoured with cherry laurel.

Image attrib. Leeds University, CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0

Accum was a pioneer in a discussion we are all familiar with today: food adulteration. Chances are that we have all watched the news at some point and wondered about what we ate the other day. The reasons for our worries are in essence the same one as in 1820 Britain. For one, we all need to eat, but most of us do not run our own farms, do not milk our own cow Daisy in the morning, nor do we pull our own carrots out of the ground. Modern consumption means being vastly dependent on agriculture and industry to keep us fed, and as consumers we have little control over what goes into our ready-made soup or can of beans. Furthermore, there are substances in our food that we would prefer not to be there: additives to give colour, texture, or taste. Substitutes can also prove tricky, as some of us may remember, horse-meat rather than beef may appear in last night’s lasagna  

All of these problems have a surprisingly long history, which is what my research on nineteenth-century food processing and consumption in Germany has explored over the past few years. Around 1870 in Germany, the food industry used, for example, potato syrup instead of real sugar, sick or dead animals to make sausages, and yeast extract to add flavour to food. The reason for this was simple: to decrease production cost and avoid financial loss. The same principles apply today. In the United States, high-fructose corn syrup is the twenty-first century cheaper sugar-alternative; the meat of sick or dying animals still end up in wontons in contemporary China; and it is hard to avoid monosodium glutamate used to mimic the savory taste of meat in the British ready-meal.

The important point is that food adulteration is not a story about contemporary China, early industrial Britain, the United States or even a rapidly modernizing Germany. It is a story about modernization more broadly. The moment a society moves from being a largely agricultural society to an industrial one with many of its people living in cities, the great majority of us outsource food-production, -processing and -preparation to agriculture, industry, grocery stores and eateries. At that stage, when we buy a sandwich, get fish-n-chips in a shop, or purchase a bottle of ketchup at the store around the corner, we have entrusted someone else with what goes into our stomachs..

Where industry rises (e.g. 1780s Britain, 1800s United States, 1860s Germany) food-changes quickly follow, at best quickly met by controlling legislation (Britain 1875, United States 1906, Germany 1878/9). Depending on how quickly lawmakers react, how much pressure they meet from their population, and how adamant consumers are about regulation, consumption habits will also change. In Britain, the United States, and Germany, for example, food industrialization was usually paired or soon followed by vegetarianism or back-to-nature movements. That was no coincidence. For consumers in Germany becoming a vegetarian in 1870 or even a vegan around 1890 was one way to reduce the risk of ingesting potentially harmful substances in a time before GMO (pesticides and fertilizers are another story!).

Accum’s story unfortunately had a sad ending: with a ruined reputation, he left Britain and it took the British government half a century to bring about the Food, Drink, and Drugs Act of 1875. However, Accum’s work simultaneous inspired one of the most comprehensive food laws in his own home country of Germany. The Food Law of 1878, paired legislation with a vast network of testing facilities, and even a food police that cracked down on reducing “bloody milk” and “urine-dyed pasta” on the market.


Frederick Accum, image attrib. Sidney Edelstein Collection, CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0

The good news is that we have made progress on the “food adulteration” front, and for those of us who are still worried, there are a range of ways to curb our anxiety without ruining our appetite. Examples include calling for better legislation, reading labels, and committing to a food-selection matrix (better known as diets) to reduce risk. As agriculture, industry, and our consumption habits continue to evolve globally, we will hopefully not repeat the mistakes of the past by testing rigorously before we allow a substance to end up on our plate. Lawmakers and consumers now have the benefit of hindsight, and especially up-and-coming industries with rapidly evolving markets today have the chance to avoid making the same mistakes Britain, the US or Germany did centuries ago. Keeping a collective eye on industry and food laws will ensure there will never again be any “Death in the Pot.”

Interested in the history of food? For further reading, see:

Deborah Blum, The Poison Squad: One Chemist’s Single-Minded Crusade for Food Safety at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin, 2018.

Corinna Treitel, Eating Nature in Modern Germany. Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Bee Wilson, Swindled: The Dark History of Food Fraud, from Poisoned Candy to Counterfeit Coffee. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.

LGBT History Month Poster: James VI & I – King of Scotland, England and Ireland


James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, Wikimedia Commons

James VI & I (1566-1625), the son of Mary, Queen of Scots and her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, was crowned as King of Scotland in 1567, at only thirteen months of age. Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the sixth James to hold the Scottish crown also became James I of England and Ireland.

James VI & I’s appointment of royal favourites – a practice entirely in keeping with other European monarchs of the age – has caused some modern scholars to speculate about James’s sexuality, particularly with respect to his relationship with his “greatest favourite”, George Villiers, who was appointed cupbearer to the king in 1614, gentleman of the bedchamber in 1615, knighted in 1616 and ultimately made duke of Buckingham in 1623. Whilst James made his affection for Villiers abundantly clear, and the relationship between monarch and favourite was necessarily one that was both deeply political and personal, the sources do not make explicit the nature of the two men’s intimacy. Rumours may have circulated – and been picked up on by later scholars – but these are difficult to disentangle from discourses on ‘court favourites’, from contemporary and later attempts to paint James’ court as sleazy and corrupt, and from practices that in the early modern context were commonplace, such as same-sex bed-sharing. 


Thumbnail of this poster. Click for larger version.

The problem of uncovering practices which would necessarily have been hidden, and in unpicking discourse from events, fall into especially sharp relief in this case. Whilst scholars disagree about how the evidence on James’s sexuality should be interpreted, this example is instructive for all historians as a reminder of the importance of seeking to understand the emotional lives and intimate relationships of past historical actors in their full complexity and contexts.

Further reading:

Michael B. Young,  King James VI and I and the History of Homosexuality (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000)

The History Society’s 2019 Interdepartmental Quiz

Blog written by Glenn Mills

The winning team!

January 30 saw the eagerly awaited return of the History Society’s Interdepartmental Quiz. The evening was a paradoxical mixture of light-hearted fun and ferocious competition as we pitted representatives from the Modern, Mediaeval and Classics departments against one another in a war of the wits for the prestigious IDQ Trophy. This year, Dr Bess Rhodes, Dr Sarah Frank and Dr Emma Hart represented the Modern History department; Dr Robert Cimino, Dr Alex Woolf, and Professor John Hudson defended the currently reigning mediaevalists; Dr Dawn Hollis, Dr Andrea Brock and Dr Jon Coulston formed the Classics team. Alex and Jon are veterans (having routinely competed to defend or retrieve their departments’ glory!) but it was equally pleasing to see so many new faces in the quizzing arena and we hope they will be keen to return next year.

The evening’s events took off with a general knowledge round in which the mediaevalists gained an early lead, correctly identifying cynophobia as the fear of dogs and Quagadougou as the capital of Burkina Fasco. The St Andrews round showed a balanced performance, with Alex Woolf naming St Peter as St Andrew’s brother, Bess Rhodes exhibiting a comprehensive knowledge of Andrew Melville Hall, and Jon Coulston demonstrating an impressive familiarity with the artefacts in the MUSA. The ancient and middle eastern rounds proved surprisingly perplexing for all of the teams. The precise date for the eruption of Vesuvius descended into loose guesswork, while the dissolution of the Knights Templar remains an area in need of some revision.

The three teams stumbled their way through an agonising pop culture round, in which only one of Ariana Grande’s ex-boyfriends in her song ‘thank u, next’ was identified by all nine contestants. However, Meghan Markle’s television career and the 2019 Oscars saw much wider success. The medieval round proved equally troublesome, although Alex Woolf and John Hudson’s knowledge of Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark and the Hereford mappamundi earned the mediaeval team a few points on their home turf. The music round witnessed a passable group performance of ABBA’s Super Trouper and Andrea Brock demonstrated the Floss dance with consummate skill. The final two rounds on modern history and science brought the evening to a tidy conclusion.

By the end of the night, the Mediaeval team achieved a decisive victory and the IDQ trophy has thus been returned to St John’s House, where it will stay under the guardianship of the school administrators, Dorothy Christie and Audrey Wishart. The IDQ continues to be a highlight for many students and we are pleased to say that this year saw a record turnout. Many thanks are due to the History Society Committee, who have offered invaluable help with the planning and logistics of the event. In particular Academic Officer Sophie Rees showed her diligent commitment, communicating regularly with staff, organising the venue and compiling questions, and President Harris LaTeef bravely took up the gauntlet of quizmaster. A final word of thanks must be extended to the academics who participated in the quiz, despite the administrative chaos of week one, and to all of the students in attendance. We hope next year’s quiz will be received with equal enthusiasm.

Summer and Autumn Round Up

News

b1In celebration of Black History Month, members of the St Andrews History department have compiled a list of essential texts

Congratulations to one of our history students, Jack Abernethy, on being awarded one of six national prizes of 2018 by the British Commission for Maritime History for his exceptional undergraduate thesis.

Congratulations to Morag Allan Campbell, whose ‘Face to Faceexhibition was presented  by Professor Rab Houston in the Members’ area of the Scottish Parliament in September

Congratulations also to Professor Rab Houston in his role as a contributor to The Oxford Handbook of English Law and Society 1500-1700, which received the Sixteenth Century Society & Conference Bainton Reference Prize award

Congratulations are also in order for Dr Tomasz Kamusella for being awarded the Supporter of the Silesian Language award by the publishing house Silesia Progress

b3Staff Activity

On 3rd July , Professor Hillenbrand gave a paper titled ‘The Sultan, the Kaiser, the Colonel, and the Purloined Wreath’ at the International Medieval Congress at the University of Leeds

Professor Hillenbrand presented ‘Saladin’s Spin Doctors’ for the Annual Prothero Lecture at the Royal Historical Society on July 6

On 8th July, Dr Chandrika Kaul was a Panel Guest Reviewer on BBC World Service Weekend Review

On 4th September, Dr Tomasz Kamusella gave a presentation titled ‘Tears of Blood: A Poet’s Witness Account of the Poraimos’ at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Gypsy Lore Society and Conference of Gypsy/Romani Studies at the National Library of Romania in Bucharest

Between 4th-8th September Professor Elena Marushiakova and Professor Veselin Popov presented ‘Gypsy Nomadism vs. Roma Activism in Eastern Europe during the Interwar Period’, while Dr Aleksandar Marinov presented ‘The Roma and the Protestant Mission in Bulgaria between the Two World Wars’. Professor Marushiakova was also the convenor of the panel ‘Roma in the Period between WWI and WWII’

On 27th September Dr Margaret Connolly and Ms Rachel Hart gave a paper, ‘The Marchmont Regiam Maiestatem comes full circle: a book and its owners, 1548 to 2018’, to the Edinburgh Bibliographical Society

On October 3, Paul Malgrati organised the ‘Joe Corrie (1894-1968); Miner, Poet, Playwright Anniversary’

From 5 to 7 of October, Professor Elena Marushiakova and Professor Veselin Popov took part in the 14th Asia Pacific Sociological Association Conference. They presented the paper ‘Nomadism vs. Sedentarisation: Central Asian Gypsies during 20th -21st century’

On 6 October, Konrad Lawson presented on ‘Statistical Stratigraphy and Thinking Critically about the Digital Humanities’ at the workshop Statistics, Categories, Politics: Analyzing, Interpreting, and Visualizing Data in Recent Chinese History at the University of Freiburg

b2

Konrad Lawson gave the paper ‘Liberating Order: The Seoul Metropolitan Police and Self-Narratives of Discontinuity 1945-1947’at the University of Edinburgh Yun Posun Memorial Symposium

On 12th October Dr Chandrika Kaul presented ‘The Monarch and the Mahatma: Political personae in a mediated world’ at the ‘Politics in Public: The Mediatization of Political Personae 1880s-1930s’ conference at KU Leuven.

On October 13, ISHR hosted ‘Re-thinking the Renaissance and Reformation in Scotland:
A Conference in Honour of Roger A. Mason, Professor of Scottish History

On 15 October, Konrad Lawson presented on ‘Su Lin Lewis Cities in Motion: Urban Life and Cosmopolitanism in Southeast Asia, 1920-1940‘ for the Institute of Transnational and Spatial History Reading Group at St Andrews

On October 18, Professor Michael Brown presented the paper ‘Leading the Realm’s Estate: Royal Authority and the transformation of fifteenth-century Scotland

Between October 24 and October 27, the Institute of Intellectual History organised the After Pufendorf: Natural Law and the Passions in Germany and Scotland conference

On October 25, Smart History St Andrews hosted the one-day conference Open Doors to Digital Heritage

On Friday 26th and Saturday 27th October, Professor Elena Marushiakova,  Professor Veselin Popov  and Dr Aleksandar Marinov hosted the conference ‘Roma Civic Emancipation between the Two World Wars: Challenges in Archival Research of Roma’

New Publications

Bavaj, Riccardo and Martina Steber (eds). Civilisational Mappings. ‘The West’ at the Turn of the Century [Zivilisatorische Verortungen. Der ‘Westen’ an der Jahrhundertwende (1880-1930)] (De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2018)

b5Cox, Rory.Approaches to Pre-Modern War and Ethics: Some Comparative and Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives’, Global Intellectual History (26 September, 2018)

—‘Historicizing Waterboarding as a Severe Torture Norm’, International Relations (20 September, 2018)

—‘Gratian’, in Just War Thinkers. War, Conflict and Ethics series, eds. Cian O’Driscoll and Daniel Brunstetter (Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2017): 34-49.

—‘The Ethics of War up to Thomas Aquinas’, in The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War, eds. Seth Lazar and Helen Frowe (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018): 99-121.

Dawson, Tom, Hollesen, Jorgen, Martin Callanan, Rasmus Fenger-Nielsen, T. Max Friesen, Anne M. Jensen, Adam Markham, Vibeke V. Martens, Vladimir V. Pitulko, and Marcy Rockman. ‘Climate Change and the Deteriorating Archaeological and Environmental Archives of the Arctic’, Antiquity 92, no. 363 (2018): 573-586.

Greenwood, Timothy. ‘Ananias of Shirak’, Encyclopaedia Iranica (2018).

Halstead, Huw. ‘”Ask the Assyrians, Armenians, Kurds”: Transcultural Memory and Nationalism in Greek Historical Discourse on Turkey’, Indiana University Press 30, no. 2 (2018): 3-39.

Hillenbrand, Carole. ‘Fremd wie Ausserirdische. Wie reagierten die Muslime auf die Invasion?‘, in Kulturkonflikt im Mittelalter. Die Kreuzüge, Der Spiegel Geschichte 5, no. 18 (2018): 30-35

Kamusella, Thomasz. ‘Belarus: A Chinese Solution?’, New Eastern Europe (31 July 2018)

— ‘Diskussion um Stand, Ausbau, Status und Kodifizierung des (Ober-Schlesischen [Discussion on the State, Development, Status and Standardization of the (Upper) Silesian Language]’ in Kai Witzlack-Makarevich (ed), Kalkierungs- und Entlehnungssprachen in der Slavia: Boris Unbegaun zum 120. Geburtstag (Frank & Timme, 2018): 263-302.

Ethnic Cleansing during the Cold War: the Forgotten 1989 Expulsion of Turks from Communist Bulgaria (Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2018).

— ‘Bulgaria: An Unlikely Personality Cult’, New Eastern Europe (7 September, 2018)

Marushiakova-Popova, Elena and Veselin Popov.Migration vs. Inclusion: Roma Mobilities from East to West’, Baltic Worlds 11, no. 2-3 (Sep 2018): 88-100.

Lawson, Konrad. ‘Reimagining the Postwar International Order: the World Federalism of Ozaki Yukio and Kagawa Toyohiko’ in Simon Jackson & Alanna O’Malley (eds.), The Institution of International Order: From the League of Nations to the United Nations (Routledge, 2018)

Lugt, Mara van der. ‘Les Mots Et Les Choses: The Obscenity of Pierre Bayle’, The Modern Language Review 113, no. 4 (October 2018): 714–741

b4Palmer, James. Early Medieval Hagiography (ARC Humanities Press, 2018)

— and Matthew Gabriele (eds). Apocalypse and Reform from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages (Routledge, 2018).

—‘Climates of crisis: apocalypse, nature, and rhetoric in the early medieval world’, Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies 48, no. 2 (2018): 1-20.

Rostvik, Camilla Mork. ‘Cernoises and Horrible Cernettes: A History of Women at CERN 1954-2017’, Women’s History Review 27, no. 5 (2018): 858-865.

Rowlands, Guy. ‘Life after Death in Foreign Lands: Louis XIV and Anglo-American Historians’ in Penser l’après Louis XIV. Histoire, mémoires, représentations, eds. Charles-Édouard Levillain and Sven Externbrink (Paris: Honoré Champion, 2018)

Toffolo, Sandra. ‘Pellegrini stranieri e il commercio veneziano nel Rinascimento,’ in: Elisa Gregori ed., Rinascimento fra il Veneto e l’Europa. Questioni, metodi, percorsi (Padova: Cleup, 2018): 263-284.

Woolf, Alex. ‘Columbanus’ Ulster Education’ in Alexander O’Hara (ed), Columbanus and the Peoples of Post-Roman Europe (Oxford University Press, 2018): 91-102.

Re-thinking the Renaissance and Reformation in Scotland: A Conference in Honour of Roger A. Mason, Professor of Scottish History

ramblog.jpgOn October 13, a conference was held to celebrate the contributions of Professor Roger Mason to the field of Scottish history. Roger, having only recently retired from St Andrews, wrote on many topics including Buchanan, Knox, and many other matters related to the Renaissance in Scotland. The conference was opened by Sally Mapstone, Principal and renowned scholar of Scottish literature in her own right. She shared wonderful anecdotes about Roger’s history, and highlighted his contribution to the understanding of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Scotland.

The day continued with a lecture by Professor Dauvit Broun. In ‘Rethinking medieval Scottish regnal historiography’, he encouraged everyone to re-evaluate their study of the Fordun-Bower-Pluscarden corpus. The modern editions distort the medieval and early modern origins of these texts, and understanding their original reading would be more helpful in researching these texts. After a brief coffee break, Professor Nicola Royan presented ‘Talking for Scotland: another use of early Scottish humanism’. Moving towards the late fifteenth century, she discussed the speeches given by Scottish diplomats and how they deployed rhetoric in order to flatter and persuade foreign monarchs.

ramblog1Professor Jane Dawson looked at two formidable figures of the Scottish early modern period in her talk ‘James and John: the stormy relationship between Regent Moray and Knox’. Both men were heralded as stalwarts of the Scottish reformation, but while they often acted together, their similarities stemmed from their shared enemies, rather than any common goals. During the lunch, Special Collections arranged for a special viewing of manuscripts related to Roger’s work, career, and this conference. From a Blaeu map based on Buchanan’s work, to John Knox’s writing and a tiny manuscript by Esther Inglis, the audience was spoiled for choice.

After lunch, Dr Bess Rhodes spoke about ‘“The Tyme of Reformatione”: Early Modern Protestants’ memories of religious change’. She explored the ways in which the Scottish perception of the reformation changed within fifty years. Esther Meijers followed, and she focused on the international dimensions of Scotland. In ‘The Dutch in Scotland: The diplomatic visit of the States General upon the baptism of Prince Henry (1594)’, she examined the intricate matters of diplomacy between the newly constituted United Provinces and Scotland.

ramblog3The conference was concluded with a Lightning Round by several scholars. Ali Cathcart, Katie Stevenson, Jamie-Reid-Baxter and Steven Reid shared both personal stories about Roger’s influence on their work as well as professional opinions about where the field would be going. They will also all contribute to a festschrift, to be published in the near future. The day was truly a celebration of Roger’s contribution to Scottish history, and his impact on scholars: all the participants enjoyed thoroughly enjoyed the conference.