Disability History Month 2019

This week marks the beginning of Disability History Month, which runs from 22nd November to 22nd December. To celebrate this, the School’s Equality & Diversity Committee has put together a series of six posters, each one dedicated to a historical figure or figures who lived with physical and/or intellectual disabilities or neurodiversity. These will be displayed in and around teaching rooms and staff offices in South Street, St Katherine’s Lodge, and the Arts Building. See if you can spot them all!

We hope that the posters will fire your interest to find out more about the fascinating people they describe, so we’ll also release blog posts here over the course of the month which will set out some further reading related to each case. The first one – on the mutilation of Justinian II – is below.

Disabling an Emperor: The Mutilation of Justinian II

The poorly-struck gold tremissis coin visible on the poster was minted in Constantinople between 705 and 711 CE. The two figures on the reverse, both clutching a cross, are named in Latin [I]USTINIANUS ET TIBER[IUS], identifying the emperor Justinian II and his young son, and co-emperor, Tiberius. Someone however has deliberately damaged the nose of the Justinian figure, clearly an act of dissidence and opposition, but also of artistic correction, for Justinian II had had his nose cut off and his tongue split when deposed in 695. His return to power a decade later was accompanied by great brutality and the intervening emperors were both beheaded. Why did Justinian II lose his nose rather than his head?

Contrary to popular belief, there was no long-standing tradition of nose-cutting – as opposed to the ubiquitous blinding – in Byzantium. The earliest instance involves the punishment of Athalarikos and Theodore magistros, respectively the illegitimate son and nephew of the emperor Heraclius, for plotting to murder the emperor and his sons in 637. Justinian II’s father Constantine IV had mutilated his two brothers, Heraclius and Tiberius, in 681 in the same way. This action may be connected to the prohibition found in Leviticus 21:18 on imperfect men serving as priests and it is striking that all of the figures who suffered this fate down to Justinian II were descended from Heraclius. Nose-cutting therefore may have been a form of permanent, visible disfigurement intended to delegitimise rather than to kill, intimating a remarkable respect for the Heraclian line. The tradition that Justinian II obtained a golden prosthetic appears only in a later eighth-century Italian source which maintains that Justinian II lost his arms and ears as well; this should be treated with caution. 

Suggestion for further reading: Patricia Skinner, ‘The Gendered Nose and its Lack: “Medieval” Nose-Cutting and its Manifestations’, Journal of Women’s History vol. 26 no.1 (2014): 45-67

Staff Spotlight: Dr Montserrat Lopez Jerez

Blog written by Dr Montserrat Lopez Jerez. Dr Lopez Jerez is a new addition to the School of History this year. Her research focuses on the economic history of developing regions, particularly colonial and post-colonial economic development in East and Southeast Asia. 

Montse in Luang Prabang

I am not sure if my academic career qualifies as conventional–it has definitely not been straightforward. Before my current work, I spent years studying natural sciences and almost applied to medical school. Instead, I opted for a quicker entry into the labour market and went for Business Administration, majoring in international economics in Icade, Madrid. I took advantage of the extra academic opportunities offered by the university while I was there, which eventually resulted in combining my studies with work in, among others, investment banking (ING Barings) and strategic consultancy (Arthur D. Little), as well as volunteer work.

By the time I graduated I was ready to move from Spain, and I was lucky enough to get a paid internship sponsored by the Spanish Institute for Foreign Trade (ICEX) to work for one year at the Commercial Section of the Spanish Embassy in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, followed by two years in Vientiane, Laos as a trade consultant. Witnessing the remarkably quick transformations taking place in the region and being part of the striking inequalities, I was bitten by an academic curiosity which led me to a Masters in Asian Studies at Lund University, Sweden. I specialised on Southeast Asia and carried out my fieldwork in Thailand under the supervision of Professor Christer Gunnarsson. Under his and Associate Professor Martin Andersson’s supervision, I wrote my doctoral dissertation on the effects of factor endowments in influencing the developing paths of the two rice deltas of Vietnam from colonial times. I obtained my PhD in Economic History in 2015 and stayed in Lund as a lecturer at the Department of Economic History and the Centre for Asian Studies. I was again very fortunate as my dissertation won the Wallander scholarship granting me three years of research fellowship.

A map of French Indochina taken by Montse at the French Archives (ANOM) in Aix-en-Provence

Lund, especially the Department of Economic History, was home for fourteen years. During this time I worked mainly on my dissertation which is now a monograph titled Deltas Apart – Factor Endowments, Colonial Extraction and Pathways of Agricultural Development in Vietnam. As Swedish dissertations have an ISBN, its conversion into a book has not been forthright but it is one of my upcoming projects. Emanating from the dissertation, I have published four research pieces, of which the latest are on the modern transformation of Vietnam examining the linkages between rural transformation and inclusiveness (in Innovation and Development 2019) and one shortly forthcoming in an edited volume by CUP on the fiscal capacity of the colonial state in Africa and Asia (edited by Ewout Frankema and Anne Booth). Here I explore the formation and evolution of the French fiscal state in Indochina in relation to the paradox of being portrayed as one of the most extractive states (when it comes to taxation) while its revenues per capita are amongst the lowest in colonial East and Southeast Asia.

Since August 2019, I have been participating in a recently granted Lund-based project which aims at understanding what makes developing countries resilient to economic shrinking. This will run for three years. Simultaneously I am expanding my work on understanding and quantifying inequalities in rural economies and their effect in economic development in East and Southeast Asia.

My teaching in St Andrews reflects my academic interests, diverse and broad training, and experience of working in European environments while specialising in Asia. My honour modules are: MO3388 (the East Asian Economic Miracle), MO3355 (on colonialism in East and Southeast Asia), and MO4854 (Equality, Institutions and the Development of the Modern State).  I look forward to engaging in MO1008, HI2001, and the MSc in Economic and Social History next year.

When I’m not at work, I spend my time with my kids and other loved ones spread across the globe.

‘Prisoners or Patients? Criminal Insanity in Victorian Scotland’: an exhibition by Professor Rab Houston

Blog written by Professor Rab Houston. Professor Houston has worked at the University of St Andrews since 1983 and is Professor of Modern History, specialising in British social history.

Professor Rab Houston

‘Prisoners or Patients?’ is the latest part of a major project I began in 2016 to use the lessons of history to stimulate awareness of mental health issues in the modern world.

Using free podcasts, social media, public talks, and photo exhibitions of asylum and prison patients I tried to reach out to sufferers and those close to them, medical professionals, and anyone with an interest in what is the fastest growing diagnostic category in global healthcare. I did this using history because it is, I think, uniquely useful for enabling empathetic engagement.

William Porter, convicted of housebreaking and theft.
Image: National Records of Scotland

People a century or more ago seem very different to us. The rationale behind the photo exhibitions is that the further you get from an event or a person, the harder it is to know what they were actually like. The more you can keep of the physical reality, the more you keep of the mental reality. Seeing someone’s face engages us straight away, and then you begin to question why their image was taken. In this case it was because of a crime. What were their family circumstances? How did those around them see their mental state? Did they get a bad break or make a bad choice? How did the justice system deal with those who were not responsible because they were insane? What therapies were available to treat someone who went mad? All these steps draw us into a material world that is different to our own – but a mental world that is more familiar than we might think, because the combination of genetic predisposition and life-stresses that produce mental disorders was almost certainly the same in the past as in the present.

Britain’s present-day prison system was created by the Victorians. They built not only penitentiaries, some still housing prisoners, but also a national system of administration. What were called ‘criminal lunatics’ became part of an integrated system during Victorian times, rather than anomalies in both justice and health care. Perth Prison’s Criminal Lunatic Department was created to house the most seriously disturbed offenders from across Scotland, and it was the only facility of its kind until what is now The State Hospital, Carstairs, opened in 1948. 

Margaret Hunter or Beaton, convicted of killing her young son
Image: National Records of Scotland

The problems the justice system faced then were similar to today. How to identify whether someone really was mad or feigning insanity in hope of more favourable treatment? Where to put criminal lunatics to prevent them from harming themselves and others? How to balance the needs of society with the rights of individuals? How to help prisoner-patients recover and re-enter the community? Prison communities of all kinds had much higher levels of mental disorder than the general population in Victorian times, something which remains true today.

There are differences too. Victorians thought that institutions were the key to most social problems, whereas their successors today prefer smaller scale solutions. Most of the drugs now used to manage mental problems have only been available since the mid-20th century; Victorians had only sedatives and hypnotics. We have different ideas about the status of women and children, and the acceptability of violence in interpersonal relations. But the difference is not as crude as we might think. The Victorians knew about social issues and mental disorders, dealing with them as best they could by the standards of their times. The past really is another country, where they do things differently. We should respect their efforts, even if, ultimately, we ourselves choose to do things differently.

What does all this mean? The famous British historian G. M. Trevelyan once wrote movingly:

‘The poetry of history lies in the quasi-miraculous fact, that once, on this earth, on this familiar spot of ground, walked other men and women, as actual as we are today, thinking their own thoughts, swayed by their own passions, but now all gone, one generation vanishing after another; gone as utterly as we ourselves shall shortly be gone, like ghosts at dawn.’

A body belt used to restrain a prisoner’s arms and hands. Restraints like this were used in all UK prisons in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Image: National Records of Scotland

The exhibition helps us to reach out to them across time and to see ourselves and those around us in a different, more sympathetic light. It allows us to learn more about mental health through the lessons of history. Because we are all migrants through time.

The exhibition showed at the National Records of Scotland during the Edinburgh Festival (August 2019) and was part of the official Fringe program. Between now and the end of 2019 it will be in various Scottish prisons, The State Hospital Carstairs, and on display at a UK forensic psychiatry conference. The project runs until the end of July 2020.

Postgraduate Spotlight: Lasse Andersen

Lasse Andersen is a second year PhD student of Modern History. In this post he shares about his unlikely journey to his love of history and more about his current research.

The fact that Lasse Andersen is now a PhD candidate at the University of St Andrews would have seemed very unlikely had you met him little over a decade ago when he was practicing his bread baking skills in a small-town family bakery in rural Jutland. His father had been a great baker, so it seemed like a natural career choice to simply stay in town and do the same. But things were not to be so simple. The state intervened on behalf of the Queen, and Lasse was conscripted to the Royal Danish Navy where he was to aide in the defence of her Realm against all enemies and trespassers, especially in that vast arctic appendage to it that is Greenland. In reality, however, this mostly just involved him baking more bread, but with the added challenge of being at sea.

It was while he was at sea watching out for those trespassers (and waiting for the bread to prove) that he acquired an obsessive interest in reading. At first, he read histories of naval warfare and seafaring peoples, but one day during a particularly bad storm in the North Sea he suddenly developed an acute interest in land and all things attached to it. Upon his return, he enrolled at the University of Aarhus, where he was taught Foucault and Marx, but mostly just read about the Scottish Enlightenment. After writing his BA dissertation on Montesquieu and Adam Smith (and land), he briefly boarded yet another ship and eventually acquired the means to settle in St Andrews. He finished an MLitt in Intellectual History in 2018 with a dissertation on the changing idea of an Agrarian Law in seventeenth and eighteenth century Scotland.

His current research takes the question of land distribution into the nineteenth century, being a project about the movement for land reform in Britain in the period 1865-1875. It focuses on radical ideas about the tenure, transfer, and taxation of land within political economy and jurisprudence, especially as these came to prominence with the formation of the Land Tenure Reform Association, a pressure group headed by John Stuart Mill from 1869 to 1873. By 1873, the year of Mill’s death, more than 30 prominent radicals had signed up as members of this association, and the ideas that informed its programme reflected their anti-aristocratic liberalism and their collective experience with different systems of land tenure in places such as Ireland, India, France and North America. The essential idea behind their desire to ‘emancipate the soil’ from the confines of feudalism – from the dead hand of primogeniture and entails – was that the free and easy transfer of land would enable a much wider distribution of land, generating a numerous class of peasant proprietors whose direct interest in the produce of the soil would make agriculture more productive and give previously landless labourers an interest in the prosperity of society and the preservation of property.

Aside from John Stuart Mill, Lasse’s research focuses on many lesser-known individuals such as John Eliot Cairnes, James E. Thorold Rogers, and Thomas E. Cliffe Leslie, all of whom were members of the Land Tenure Reform Association, as well as on Louis Mallet and the 8th Duke of Argyll, the association’s primary and most vocal detractors.

One question that Lasse is particularly interested in researching is the relation between these radical land reformers and laissez-faire liberalism, a question that is intimately connected to the advent of marginalism in British political economy as well as to the debate about Richard Cobden’s legacy in the decade after his death in 1865.

Celebrating Black History Month 2019

Black History Month logo from https://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/

Today is the first day of Black History Month.  This year we are celebrating Black and African diaspora histories in a number of ways. 

Our research seminar programmes for October include speakers presenting topics that intersect with Black histories:

On Thursday 10th October, Dr Claire Eldridge from the University of Leeds will speak to the Modern History seminar about ‘Conflict and Community in the Trenches: Military Justice, Colonial Soldiers and the French Army during the First World War’ at 5.15pm in room 1.10, St Katharine’s Lodge.

On Monday 14th October, Dr Stephanie Wynne-Jones from the University of York will speak to the Medieval Studies seminar about ‘The Swahili world in the medieval globe: writing history with things’ at 1.15pm in the Old Class Library, St John’s House.

Later that day (Monday 14th October), at 4pm Dr Kate Law from the University of Nottingham will speak to the Modern History seminar about ‘”A delicate subject”: Family Planning and Apartheid, South Africa c. 1974-1994’ in room 1.10, St Katharine’s Lodge.

Other research seminars relevant to Black histories will also be held further into the academic year – for a full programme see here.

Finally, those of you who are not newcomers to the School may remember that last year we marked Black History Month by compiling a reading list of ‘essential texts’ on African and African Diaspora (including Black British, African American, and Afro European) histories. Many staff members pledged portions of their library allowance to buy any books on the list that were not held by the library.  When we compiled this reading list last year we acknowledged that by its nature it would always be a ‘work in progress’, which would require revising and updating as time went on.  This year, again, we would like to invite all students and staff to look through the reading list and let us know if there’s anything that’s not on there, that you think we should add.  Maybe you are new to St Andrews and are seeing the list with fresh eyes.  Maybe you’ve been here a while but have encountered a book in the past year – newly published or a classic in a field that’s new to you – that you think is now ‘essential reading’.  Please email any suggestions to Dr Kate Ferris (kf50) by the end of the month.  We’ll add these to the reading list, and if any are not already in the library’s collections we’ll do our best to purchase these.  In this way you’ll be making a tangible and lasting difference to the university’s holdings in the fields of Black and African diaspora histories that will help inform our research and teaching for years to come!

PhD Induction Day 2019

Blog written by Emily Betz. Emily is a third-year PhD student in Modern History studying the medical history in early modern England.

On Wednesday, September 18th the new cohort of history PhD students gathered at the beautiful Rufflets Hotel on the outskirts of St Andrews. The day began with the students getting to know each other over a cup of tea and a speed ice-breaker question series. After becoming better acquainted with each other’s academic and non-academic interests, we settled in to listen to Dr Emma Hart, the Director of Research Postgraduates and Elsie Johnstone, the School’s Postgraduate Administrator, speak about what the School of History offers its students. Their presentation gave a deeper insight into the School’s administrative processes and how it can support history students on the journey to a successful PhD.

The beautiful garden of the Rufflets Hotel.
Photo credit: Emily Betz

After a short coffee break, Dr Kate Ferris, chair of the School of History Equality & Diversity Committee, and Lenna Cumberbatch, University Equality & Diversity Adviser, spoke on the importance of knowing the University’s equality and diversity processes. Their interactive presentations imparted the necessity of respect in our academic environment and brought awareness to our biases, especially the unconscious ones that we all carry.  This was followed by a lovely walk in the Rufflets’ gardens while lunch was being prepared.

After a lunch of soup and sandwiches (with fantastic cake for dessert!), Dr Hart asked the group to think more about how to write a thesis and what stages we as researchers should go through during the PhD process. After discussing our methods as a group, we found that there are many individual ways of constructing a thesis—the important thing is to find a method that works best for you. While it’s easy to compare one PhD path to another and feel imposter syndrome, but Dr Hart warned against this in what would become the quote of the day: ‘Perfection is a unicorn’! The main takeaway was that there is no one correct way to be successful at your PhD.

The 2019 History PhD Induction group.
Photo credit: Emily Betz

Following in the same vein, the current PhD students talked about their own experiences and challenges with the PhD process. They echoed that perfection certainly is an unattainable goal and gave advice on how best to manage expectations and stay positive in what can be a grueling writing process. Their best pieces of advice included getting to know your PhD cohort, writing soon and often, and taking advantage of the various extra skills courses the university offers. After the current students spoke, it was time to get back in the taxis and make the short trip home to St Andrews–this time with more knowledge of the School of History and even more excitement for the 2019/20 academic year to begin!

Spring and Summer 2019 Round Up


Congratulations to Dr Arthur der Weduwen for being awarded the sixth Menno Hertzberger Aanmoedigingsprijs for his first book, Dutch and Flemish Newspapers of the Seventeenth Century (Brill, 2017). The prize, presented in The Hague at the Royal Library by the Menno Hertzbergerstichting and the Dutch Association of Antiquarians, is awarded every three or four years to a young scholar who has made a significant contribution to Dutch book history.

Congratulations to Professor Carole Hillenbrand who was awarded the Medal of the Royal Asiatic Society jointly with her husband Professor Robert Hillenbrand.  The honour is the most prestigious of the Society’s Awards and is presented periodically in recognition of outstanding contributions to scholarship in the field of Asian Studies.

Congratulations are in also in order for Dr Konrad Lawson for receiving one of four peer-nominated and peer-judged St Andrews Teaching Excellence awards for 2019. Also, congratulations to Dr Max Skjönsberg for being nominated for this year’s awards.

Congratulations also to Professor Elena Marushiakova for receiving an Honorary Membership from ReM ReM Club (Berlin, Germany) in recognition of her contribution to ‘Re:work’ and dedication to global labour history.

Last, but certainly not least, congratulations are in order for our newest Professor of History, James T. Palmer. Professor Palmer has been teaching at the University of St Andrews since 2007 and has made fantastic contributions to our knowledge of the early Middle Ages.

Staff Activity

On 20 March Dr Tomasz Kamusella delivered a talk titled ‘Communist Bulgaria’s Forgotten Ethnic Cleansing of Turks (1989): Thirty Years Later’ at South East European University in Tetovo, North Macedonia

In March Dr Sarah Frank went on an Erasmus Mobility + exchange to the Universite de Toulouse where she taught two undergraduate classes on French colonialism and ran a seminar for masters students.

On 4 April Professor James Palmer gave the 2019 Trinity-Worth Lecture in Dublin entitled  ‘Charlemagne’s sciences and the framing of Carolingian religion’.

On 10 April Dr Chandrika Kaul delivered two lectures titled ‘The Mahatma and the Media’ and ‘Imperial Media Events: The British Empire and India in the early twentieth century’ at the University of Lund, Sweden.

On 11-12 April Dr Thomasz Kamusella gave two papers, titled ‘The Un-Polish Poland, 1989 and the Illusion of Regained Historical Continuity’ and ‘The Material and Social Reality: Ontological and Epistemic Objectivity’ at the Department of History of the University of Tallinn. On 17-18 April he delivered ‘Creating Languages: Politics and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe’ and ‘The Forgotten 1989 Expulsion of Turks from Communist Bulgaria’ at the Department of History of the University of Tartu in Estonia.

On 15-16 April Dr Rory Cox took part in the ‘NATO and Cultural Property Protection: Embracing New Challenges in the Era of Identity Wars’ conference in Brussels, organised by the Secretary General, Human Security Unit.

From 2-4 May the team of ERC advanced grant project RomaInterbellum took part in the Association for the Study of Nationalities World Convention in the special panel ‘Roma Civic Emacipation between the Two World Wars’. Professor Elena Marushiakova and Professor Veselin Popov presented on ‘Letter to Stalin: Roma Visions on Gypsy Policy in the Early USSR’; Dr Raluca Bianca Roman talked on ‘”The voice of the Roma”? National Identity, Ethnic Building and Regional Politics within Roma-led Publications in Interwar Romania’; and Dr Sofiya Zahova gave a talk entitled ‘Romani Self-representation in the “Gypsy Newspaper” of Interwar Yugoslavia’.

On 6 May Dr Justine Firnhaber-Baker gave a paper titled ‘States, Cities, and Seigneurs: Negotiating Power in the Western Mediterranean around 1250’ to the Medieval History Seminar at Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle, Germany.

On 9 May Dr Konrad Lawson gave the talk ‘Comparison and Connection in the Shadow of the Japanese Empire’ at the conference ‘Modern Japan in the Comparative Imagination’ at Durham University.

On 13 May Dr Tomasz Kamusella delivered the invited talk on ‘Language and Nationalism in the Southern Baltic Region’ for the workshop ‘New Nationalisms in the Baltic Sea Regions‘, at the University of Greifswald. On 15 May he spoke on ‘Russian: A World or National Language, and Geopolitics‘ at the Institut für Slavistik, University of Hamburg.

On 25 May Dr Chandrika Kaul was invited to present a paper on ‘Orwell, India and the BBC’ at the Rebel? Prophet? Relic? Perspectives on George Orwell conference at University College, London. On 27 May she delivered a guest lecture on ‘The Mahatma and the Media’, at the Karl Jaspers Centre for Transcultural Studies, University of Heidelberg. Dr Kaul also delivered a lecture on ‘Media and the British and Portuguese empires, themes in comparative perspective’, at the University of Birmingham on 29 May.

On 25 May Dr Rory Cox was interviewed for an episode of The Good Community podcast entitled ‘The Military, War, and the Common Good‘.

Throughout August Professor Rab Houston ran an exhibition at the National Records of Scotland entitled ‘Prisoners or Patients? – Criminal Insanity in Victorian Scotland‘.

New Publications

Brown, Michael. ‘War, Marriage, Tournament: Scottish Politics and the Anglo-French War, 1448-1450’. Scottish Historical Review 98, no. 1 (April 2019): 1-21.

Connolly, Margaret. ‘Late Medieval Books of Hours and their Early Tudor Readers in and around London’, in Manuscript and Print in Late Medieval and Tudor Britain: Essays in Honour of Professor Julia Boffey, edited by Tamara Atkin and Jaclyn Rajsic (Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2019): 107-21.

Cox, Rory. ‘Killing for culture: Responding to cultural heritage destruction as a security threat.’ Heritage in War (blog).  March 20, 2019. Accessed March 31, 2019.

Firnhaber-Baker, Justine.A Girl has a Name, and it’s not Mary Sue: Arya Stark was the Right Woman for the Job’, Newsweek (blog). 30 April 2019. Accessed 9 May 2019.

Haakonssen, Knud. ‘Millar and his circle. A preface’. History of European Ideas (April 2019): 1-3.

Hillenbrand, Carole. ‘The Assassins in fact and fiction: the Old Man of the Mountain‘, Medieval Warfare IX, no. 2 (2019): 22-35.

Hudson, John. ‘Reading Terminology in the Sources for the Early Common Law: Seisin, Simple and Not So Simple’, in English Legal History and Its Sources: Essays in Honour of Sir John Baker, edited by David Ibbetson, Neil Jones, and Nigel Ramsay (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019): 79-99.

Kamusella, Tomasz. ‘Art and sex in communist Albania’. New Eastern Europe (blog). April 10 2019. Accessed April 27 2019.

‘Bulgaria’s denial of its Ottoman past and Turkish identity’. New Eastern Europe (blog). March 24, 2019. Accessed April 14, 2019.

—‘Estonian Russian: If or when?New Eastern Europe (blog). 8 May 2019.  Accessed 9 May 2019.

Marushiakova, Elena and Vesselin Popov. ‘Цыганские миграции в Кавказском регионе: история и современность’. [‘Gypsy Migration in Caucasus region: history and present day’], in G. Hadzhimuratova & S. Ryazantsev, eds., ДЕМОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ И МИГРАЦИОННЫЙ ПОРТРЕТ КАВКАЗА/Demographic and Migration Portrait of the Caucasus’ 5, no. 2 (Moscow: Ekon-Inform, 2019): 168-174.

—‘Migration, re-emigration and identities’ change: The case of one Roma group from USSR’. In H.Kyuchukov, J.Balvin, L. Kwadrans, eds., Life with Music and Pictures: Eva Davidová’s Contribution to Roma Musicology and Ethnography,  Roma 06 (München: Lincom Academic Publishers, 2019): 63-76.

McClure, Julia, Amitava Chowdhury, Sarah Easterby-Smith, Norberto Ferreras, Omar Gueye, Andrew MacKillop, Meha Priyadarshini, Steven Serels and Jelmer Vos, ‘Inequality and the Future of Global History: A Round Table Discussion’, Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies 3 (2019): 53-81.

Müller, Frank Lorenz. Die Thronfolger: Macht und Zukunft der Monarchie im 19. Jahrhundert. [Trans. Heirs to the Throne: Power and the Future of Monarchy in the 19th Century]. Munich:  Siedler Random House, 2019.

Murdoch, Steve. ‘”Breaching Neutrality”: English prize-taking and Swedish Neutrality in the First Anglo-Dutch War, 1651-1654’. Mariner’s Mirror 105, no. 2 (April 2019): 134-147.

Peacock, Andrew. ‘Arabic Manuscripts from Buton, Southeast Sulawesi, and the Literary Activities of Sultan Muhammad ‘Aydarus (1824-1851)’. Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 10, no. 1 (April 2019).

Randjbar-Daemi, Siavush. ‘Return of the Ayatollah: Islamic Revolution.’ History Today 69, no. 4 (April 2019).

Roman, Raluca Bianca. ‘Religious Humanitarianism and Fateful Orientations among Pentecostal Kaale.’ American Ethnological Society (blog). March 8, 2019. Accessed March 31, 2019.

Skjönsberg, Max. ‘Adam Ferguson on the Perils of Popular Factions and Demagogues in a Roman Mirror’, History of European Ideas  (online first 2019).

—‘Ancient Constitutionalism, Fundamental Law, and Eighteenth-Century Toryism in the Septennial Act (1716) Debates’, History of Political Thought,  no.  2 (2019): 270-301.